Read Chapter 6 Read Chapter Review Watch the Module 2 Lecture Videos Review the Assessment Templates Practice with the Assessment Activity Answer the Module 2 Discussion Question Complete the Module 2 Quiz with a score of 80% or higher Study the Module 2 Flash Cards
1: A series of measurements that help determine the current health and fitness level of a client. Comprehensive fitness assessment. 2: Information that is gathered from a client including health history and medical background. Subjective information. 3: Measurable data about a client’s physical state such as body composition, movement, and cardiovascular ability. Objective information. 4: Medications that decrease heart rate and blood pressure. Beta-blockers. 5: Knowing a client’s occupation provides insight into what? Movement capacity and potential repetitive movements.
- 6: What is considered relevant information regarding a client’s occupation and movement capacity? Extended periods of sitting, repetitive movements, dress shoes, mental stress.
7: What are some lifestyle questions the fitness professional should ask when conducting a fitness assessment? Recreation and hobbies. 8: Questionnaire designed to help qualify a person to participate in exercise, and determine if referral to a physician is needed. Physical activity readiness questionnaire (PAR-Q). 9: A client’s chronic conditions, past surgeries, injuries, and medications. Medical history.
- 10: What can be caused by Injuries or past surgery if not properly rehabilitated? Pain, inflammation, and increased risk of re-injury.
11: What percentage of Americans do not engage in at least 30 minutes of low-to-moderate activity every day? 75%. 12: Heart disease, hypertension, pulmonary disease, type I and II diabetes, and arthritis are all common examples of what? Chronic conditions. 13: Something specifically detrimental to an individual due to a special need or chronic condition. Contraindicated. 14: What position is contraindicated for individuals with high blood pressure? Supine. 16: Pulse taken on the neck to the side of the larynx? Carotid pulse. 18: What determines a client’s baseline levels from which to compare progress to at later dates? Objective assessments. 19: What provides information about a client’s overall health, such as resting heart rate and blood pressure? Physiological assessments. 22: The pressure of circulating blood against the walls of the blood vessels after blood is ejected from the heart? Blood pressure. 23: The pressure within the arterial system after the heart contracts? Systolic (top number of bp reading). 24: The pressure within the arterial system when the heart is resting and filling with blood? Diastolic (bottom number of bp reading). 27: An indication that the client’s ankle complex will be in a plantar flexed position for extended periods of time based on occupation. Wearing dress shoes. 28: What are some methods for measuring body fat? Underwater weighing, bioelectrical impedance, and skin-fold calipers. 30: The method of measuring body fat percentages that conducts an electrical current through the body to measure fat? Bioelectrical impedance. 31: What are the four skin fold sites tested when using the Durnin-Womersly formula for body fat assessment? Biceps, triceps, subscapular, iliac crest. 36: For which clients is the use of skin calipers not recommended? Very overweight clients. 37: Where is the hip measurement taken when conducting circumference measurements? Widest portion of the buttocks.
- 38: Why should the fitness professional obtain client circumference measurements in the initial assessment? Provides feedback about client progress; can be used to calculate waist-to-hip ratio.
39: What is the most important factor to consider when taking circumference measurements? Consistency. 40: Why is BMI a poor indicator of body fat versus lean body mass? Only takes weight and height into account.
- 41: The relative percentage of body weight that is fat vs. fat-free tissue? Body composition.
44: Assessment that assumes the fat present in the subcutaneous regions of the body is proportional to the overall body fatness? Skinfold measurement. 45: What is the technique for biceps skinfold measurement? Vertical fold on the front of the arm over the center of the biceps muscle. 46: What is the technique for triceps skinfold measurement? Vertical fold on the back of the arm half way between the shoulder and the elbow. 49: On which side of the body should all skinfold measurements be taken? Right side. 51: What are the two common sub-maximal assessments that measure cardiorespiratory capability? YMCA 3 minutes step test and Rockport walk test.
- 55: The greatest number of times an individual’s heart beats in 1 minute at maximal exertion? Maximal heart rate (HRmax).
63: Assessments that measure upper extremity neuromuscular efficiency? Pushing and pulling assessment.
- 64: What develops when the structural integrity of the body has been compromised as a result of a disruption in one or more of the components of the kinetic chain? Postural distortion patterns.
80: At what level is a client instructed to squat when performing the overhead squat assessment? Height of a chair.
- 81: Which dysfunctional areas often result in noncontact related knee injuries? Ankle and hip dysfunction.
- 82: The alignment of the musculoskeletal system, which allows our center of gravity to be maintained over a base of support? Structural efficiency.
- 83: The alignment and function of all components of the kinetic chain under the direct control of the central nervous system? Posture.
- 88: What is the tempo for a pulling assessment? Perform it controlled.
90: What is the view for single-leg squat assessment? Anterior.
- 107: What is a corrective strategy for the head protruding forward on a pulling assessment? Keep head in neutral position when performing all exercises.
- 110: Provides the foundation from which the extremities function? Static posture.
- 111: Reflective of how a client is able to maintain bodily alignment while performing functional tasks? Dynamic posture.
- 116: Where are the 5 kinetic chain checkpoints? Feet and ankles, knees, LPHC, shoulders, head.
- 117: A quick way to gain an impression of a client’s overall functional status in a naturally dynamic setting? Movement assessments.
120: Which assessment measures lower extremity agility and neuromuscular control? Shark skill test.
- 124: What is the recommended rest time between progressions during lower extremity strength assessment? 2 minutes.
- 125: Who should not perform the Davies’ test? Individuals lacking shoulder stability.
- 127: How long is the Davies’ test? 15 seconds.
- 128: What assessment measures upper extremity agility and neuromuscular control? Davies’ test.
- 129: What assessment tests upper-body muscular endurance? Push-up test.
- 130: How long is the push-up test? 60 seconds.
- 17: What are the 5 types of objective assessments that can be performed with clients as part of a comprehensive fitness assessment? Physiological (bp & hr), postural (static & dynamic), performance, body composition, cardiorespiratory (5).
- 20: What is the average resting heart rate for a male? 70 bpm.
21: What is the average resting heart rate for a female? 75 bpm. 25: What is an acceptable systolic blood pressure? Less than 120 mm hg. 26: What is an acceptable diastolic blood pressure? 80 mm hg. 29: Where does the very high BMI score begin for non-athletes? 35 BMI.
- 32: What is the at-risk waist-to-hip ratio for females? 0.8
33: What is the at-risk waist-to-hip ratio for males? 0.95
- 34: Risk for disease increases when a non-athlete’s BMI exceeds what? 25 BMI.
- 35: What is the equation used to assess a client’s body mass index (BMI)? kilograms / (height) (meters squared)
42: What is the typical body fat percentage for healthy, active men? 10 – 20% 43: What is the typical body fat percentage for healthy, active women? 20 – 30% 47: What is the technique for subscapular skinfold measurement? 45 degree angle, 1-2cm below the inferior angle of the scapula.
- 48: What is the technique for iliac crest skinfold measurement? 45 degree angle just above the iliac crest and medial to the axillary line.
50: Which is the BMI range with the lowest risk of disease? 22 – 24.9
- 53: What is the straight percentage equation for predicting max heart rate? 220 – (the age)
- 54: What is the regression formula for determining HRmax? 208 – (0.7 x the age)
92: What are the dynamic postural assessments? overhead squat, single-leg squat, push and pull. 106: What are some regressions for clients unable to perform single-leg squat assessment? Use outside support for squatting assistance, perform single-leg balance without squat.
- 118: How much weight should be added following the warm-up segment of the lower extremity strength assessment (squat test)? 10 – 20% of initial load.
- 119: How much weight should be added following the warm-up segment of the upper extremity strength assessment (bench press test)? 5 – 10% of the initial load.
- 121: How many trials are included in the Shark skill test? 1 practice, 2 timed for each foot (4 graded trails total).
- 123: How many repetitions are performed per set in the upper extremity strength assessment? 3 to 5.
- 126: What are some examples of performance assessments? Davies’ test; Shark skill test; upper extremity strength assessment; lower extremity strength assessment (4).
- 15: What is the procedure for taking a client’s radial pulse? Touch should be gentle, take when the client is calm, two fingers along the right side of the arm just above the thumb, take for 60 seconds, average over three days while taking the pulse at the same time each day.
- 56: What are the criteria for performing the 3-minute step test? 96 steps per minute, 12″ step, for 3 minutes. Take pulse for 60 seconds within 5 seconds of completing the exercise.
- 60: What is the technique for performing the Rockport walk test? Record client’s weight, have client walk 1 mile as fast as they can without breaking into a jog, record the time, record the recovery pulse for 1 minute, use the formula for V02 score, align to heart rate zone.
- 105: What are the guidelines for setting up an overhead squat assessment? Feet shoulder-width apart, pointed straight ahead and in a neutral position; raise arms overhead and fully extended.
- 122: Which faults are penalized in the Shark skill test? Non-hopping leg touches ground; hands come off hips; foot goes into wrong square; foot does not return to center square (4).
52: A zone of cardiorespiratory training when a client scores poor or fair during submaximal cardio assessments? Zone 1.
- 57: What is the percentage range of HRmax for training zone 1? 65 – 75%.
- 58: What is the percentage range of HRmax for training zone 2? 76 – 85%.
- 59: What is the percentage range of HRmax for training zone 3? 86 – 95%.
Observing Static Posture
- 112: What are the 3 common postural distortion patterns? Lower crossed syndrome (arched lower back), upper crossed syndrome (forward head & rounded shoulders), pronation distortion syndrome (flat feet & knocked knees).
- 113: Increased lumbar lordosis due to an anterior pelvic tilt. Lower crossed syndrome.
- 114: Rounded shoulders with a forward head posture. Upper crossed syndrome.
- 115: In which postural distortion pattern might clients exhibit excessive foot pronation, knee flexion, internal rotation, and adduction? Pronation distortion syndrome (knock knees).
Observing Dynamic Posture
- 61: What is the observable movement compensation when the hip flexor complex and erector spinae are overactive? Low back arches.
- 62: What is the observable movement compensation when the upper trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, and levator scapulae are overactive? Shoulder elevation and head protrudes forward.
- 65: Which muscles could possibly be tight or overactive if a client demonstrates feet turning out during the overhead squat assessment? Soleus, lateral gastroncnemius (outer calves), biceps femoris (outer lower thighs).
- 66: Which muscles are overactive if the client’s knees move inward? Adductor complex, biceps femoris, TFL, vastus lateralis (front & back of thighs).
- 67: Which muscles are overactive if a client’s low back arches during the overhead squat assessment? Hip flexor complex and erector spinae.
- 68: Which muscles are underactive if a client’s feet turn out during an overhead squat assessment? Medial gastrocnemius, medial hamstring, gracilis, sartorius, popliteus.
- 69: Which muscles are underactive when a client’s arms fall forward during an overhead squat assessment? Middle/lower trapezius, rhomboids, rotator cuff.
- 70: Which muscles are overactive when a client’s head protrudes forward during a pushing assessment? Upper trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, levator scapulae.
- 71: Which muscles are underactive when a client’s head protrudes forward during a pulling assessment? Deep cervical flexors.
- 74: What muscles are most appropriate to stretch for a client whose arms fall forward during an overhead squat assessment? Latissimus dorsi, thoracic spinae, pectorals.
- 75: What muscles are most appropriate to stretch for a client who exhibits an arched lower back during an overhead squat assessment? Hip flexor complex, latissimus dorsi, erector spinae.
- 76: With which movement compensations is the latissimus dorsi indicated as being overactive in the overhead squat assessment? Low back arches and arms fall forward.
- 77: Which muscles should be foam rolled when a client exhibits an excessive forward lean? Hip flexor complex, gastrocnemius, soleus.
- 78: Which muscles are underactive when a client’s knees move inward during a single-leg squat assessment? Gluteus medius, glueteus maximus, vastus medialis oblique.
- 84: Which compensations can be observed during the overhead squat assessment from the lateral view? Low back arch, excessive forward lean, arms fall forward.
85: Which compensations can be observed during the overhead squat assessment from the anterior view? Feet turn out and knees move inward.
- 86: Which muscles are overactive in low back arches movement compensation? Hip flexor complex, erector spinae, and latissimus dorsi.
- 87: Which muscles are underactive when the knee moves inward on single-leg squat assessment? Gluteus medius, gluteus maximus, vastus medialis oblique.
- 89: What movement compensations can be observed during pushing assessment? Low back arches, shoulder elevation, protruding head.
- 91: Which muscles are underactive when the shoulders elevate in a pushing assessment? Middle and lower trapezius.
93: What movement compensations observed when the abdominal complex is overactive? Excessive forward lean.
- 94: What movement compensations can overactive biceps femoris cause in the overhead squat assessment? Feet turn out and knees move inward.
- 95: What movement compensations can underactive gluteus maximus cause during overhead squat assessment? Knees move inward, excessive forward lean, low back arches.
96: What movement compensations can be observed in the overhead squat assessment when rotator cuff muscles are underactive? Arms fall forward.
- 101: Which muscles are underactive when the low back arches during an overhead squat assessment? Gluteus maximus, hamstrings, intrinsic core stabilizers.
- 102: Which muscles are underactive with an excessive forward lean? Anterior tibialis, gluteus maximus, erector spinae.
- 103: What movement compensations are observed with an overactive TFL? Knees move inward, excessive forward lean, low back arches. Note: the TFL is part of the hip flexor complex.
- 104: What movement compensations are associated with an overactive soleus? Feet turn out and excessive forward lean.
109: Which muscles are underactive when the low back arches during pushing assessment? Intrinsic core stabilizers.
- 72: What strengthening exercise is recommended when a client’s feet turn out on the overhead squat assessment? Single-leg balance reach.
- 73: What strengthening exercise is recommended for an elevated shoulder movement compensation during the pushing assessment? Ball cobra.
- 79: What is a recommended strengthening exercise for a client who exhibits arms falling forward during an overhead squat assessment? Squat to row.
- 97: What is a corrective strategy for knees move inward (as seen in the overhead squat assessment)? Tube walking.
- 98: What is a corrective strategy for feet turning out on overhead squat assessment? Single-leg balance reach (same as 72).
- 99: What is a corrective strategy for arms fall forward (as seen in the overhead squat assessment)? Squat to row (same as 79).
- 100: What is a recommended strengthening exercise for shoulders elevated in pushing assessment? Ball cobra (same as 73).
- 108: What is a corrective strategy for low back arches, as seen in an overhead squat assessment? Ball squat.